The risks associated with hazardous drug (HD) handling have been well documented in the literature, dating back more than 35 years (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004; Crudi, Stephens, & Maier, 1982; Lorente et al., 2000; Sorsa, Hemminki, & Vainio, 1985). Although HD exposure has been linked to a number of acute side effects, most research has focused on the reproductive consequences. Figure 1 contains a summary of exposure side effects. Many HDs also are classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (2015). Known and probable carcinogens are listed in Figure 2.
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